Notorious Genovese boss' son gets prison for shakedown of union official July 19, pm. Judge gives reputed Bonanno boss stiff sentence for racketeering July 18, pm. Sometimes it really sucks being the captain — especially in the mafia. Reputed Italian mobster wanted to give reporter 'two hits with a mallet' July 17, pm.
A reputed Italian mobster was caught on a police wiretap ranting about how he wanted to bash a reporter for confronting one of his cronies, according to a report Wednesday Most of the female hostages were sold to fences and then sold as prostitutes , wives, or concubines. Children were often sold as servants or entertainers, while young girls were often sold as prostitutes.
Like merchants of honest goods, one of the most significant tools of a fence was their network of connections. They not only help bandits to sell the stolen goods but also acted as agents of bandits to collect protection money from local merchants and residents. These "part-time" fences with high social status used their connection with bandits to help themselves gain social capital as well as wealth.
It was extremely important to their occupation that fences maintained a positive relationship with their customers, especially their richer gentry clients.
When some members of the local elites joined the ranks of fences, they not only protect bandits to protect their business interests, they actively took down any potential threats to their illegal profiting, even government officials. It was also essential for them to maintain a relationship with bandits. However, it was just as true that bandits needed fences to make a living. As a result, fences often held dominance in their relationship with bandits. Taking advantage of their dominance in their relationships with bandits, fences also cheated bandits by manipulating the prices they paid bandits for the stolen property.
Aside from simply buying and selling stolen goods, fences often played additional roles in the criminal underground of early China. Because of the high floating population in public places such as inns and teahouses, they often became ideal places for banditries and gangs to gather to exchange information and plan for their next crime. Harborers, people who provided safehouses for criminals, often played the role of receiving stolen goods from their harbored criminals to sell to other customers.
Pawnshops were also often affiliated with fencing stolen goods.
The owners or employees of such shops often paid cash for stolen goods at a price a great deal below market value to bandits, that were often desperate for money, and resold the goods to earn a profit. In coastal regions, illegal trading with foreigners, as well as smuggling became a huge concern for the government during the mid to late Ming era. In order to prohibit this crime, the government passed a law in which illegal smugglers who traded with foreigners without the consent of the government would be punished with exile to the border for military service.
In areas where military troops were stationed, stealing and selling military property would result in a more severe punishment. In the Jiaqing time, a case was recorded of stealing and selling military horses. The empire himself gave direction that the thieves who stole the horses and the people who helped to sell the horses would be put on cangue and sent to labor in a border military camp.
In the salt mines, the penalty for workers who stole salt and people who sold the stolen salt was the most severe. Consider salt is a very valuable property in Ming China, anyone who was arrested and found guilty of stealing and selling government salt was put to death. During the Victorian era , criminals and gangs started to form organizations which would be collectively become London's criminal underworld. One of the most infamous crime bosses in the Victorian underworld was Adam Worth , who was nicknamed "the Napoleon of the criminal world" or "the Napoleon of Crime" and became the inspiration behind the popular character of Professor Moriarty.
Robb and Erin H. Structures are formal and rational with allocated tasks, limits on entrance, and influence the rules established for organizational maintenance and sustainability. Albini saw organized criminal behavior as consisting of networks of patrons and clients, rather than rational hierarchies or secret societies. The networks are characterized by a loose system of power relations. Each participant is interested in furthering his own welfare. Criminal entrepreneurs are the patrons and they exchange information with their clients in order to obtain their support.
Clients include members of gangs, local and national politicians, government officials and people engaged in legitimate business. People in the network may not directly be part of the core criminal organization. Kinship is seen as the basis of organized crime rather than the structures Cressey had identified; this includes fictive godparental and affinitive ties as well as those based on blood relations, and it is the impersonal actions, not the status or affiliations of their members, that define the group.
Rules of conduct and behavioral aspects of power and networks and roles include the following:. Strong family ties are derived from the traditions of southern Italy, where family rather than the church or state is the basis of social order and morality.
One of the most important trends to emerge in criminological thinking about OC in recent years is the suggestion that it is not, in a formal sense, "organized" at all. Evidence includes lack of centralized control, absence of formal lines of communication, fragmented organizational structure. It is distinctively disorganized. For example, Seattle's crime network in the s and 80s consisted of groups of businessmen, politicians and of law enforcement officers.
They all had links to a national network via Meyer Lansky , who was powerful, but there was no evidence that Lansky or anyone else exercised centralized control over them.
While some crime involved well-known criminal hierarchies in the city, criminal activity was not subject to central management by these hierarchies nor by other controlling groups, nor were activities limited to a finite number of objectives. The networks of criminals involved with the crimes did not exhibit organizational cohesion. Too much emphasis had been placed on the Mafia as controlling OC.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal. Organized crime networks are billion-dollar businesses operating in many crime areas.
The Mafia were certainly powerful but they "were part of a heterogeneous underworld, a network characterized by complex webs of relationships. Further studies showed neither bureaucracy nor kinship groups are the primary structure of organized crime, rather they were in partnerships or a series of joint business ventures. All observed networks and a degree of persistence, and there may be utility in focusing on the identification of organizing roles of people and events rather than the group's structure. International consensus on defining organized crime has become important since the s due its increased prevalence and impact.
OC is " It is frequently accomplished through ruthless disregard of any law, including offenses against the person and frequently in connection with political corruption. However, violence and corruption and the pursuit of multiple enterprises and continuity serve to form the essence of OC activity. There are eleven characteristics from the European Commission and Europol pertinent to a working definition of organized crime.
click Six of those must be satisfied and the four in italics are mandatory. Summarized, they are:.
Others stress the importance of power, profit and perpetuity, defining organized criminal behavior as:. Definitions need to bring together its legal and social elements. OC has widespread social, political and economic effects. It uses violence and corruption to achieve its ends: "OC when group primarily focused on illegal profits systematically commit crimes that adversely affect society and are capable of successfully shielding their activities, in particular by being willing to use physical violence or eliminate individuals by way of corruption. It is a mistake to use the term "OC" as though it denotes a clear and well-defined phenomenon.
The evidence regarding OC "shows a less well-organized, very diversified landscape of organizing criminals…the economic activities of these organizing criminals can be better described from the viewpoint of 'crime enterprises' than from a conceptually unclear frameworks such as 'OC'. OC may appear in many forms at different times and in different places. The understanding of organized crime has therefore progressed to combined internationalization and an understanding of social conflict into one of power, control, efficiency risk and utility, all within the context of organizational theory. The accumulation of social, economic and political power  have sustained themselves as a core concerns of all criminal organizations:.
Contemporary organized crime may be very different from traditional Mafia style, particularly in terms of the distribution and centralization of power, authority structures and the concept of 'control' over one's territory and organization. There is a tendency away from centralization of power and reliance upon family ties towards a fragmentation of structures and informality of relationships in crime groups.
Organized crime most typically flourishes when a central government and civil society is disorganized, weak, absent or untrusted. This may occur in a society facing periods of political, economic or social turmoil or transition, such as a change of government or a period of rapid economic development, particularly if the society lacks strong and established institutions and the rule of law. The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the Revolutions of in Eastern Europe that saw the downfall of the Communist Bloc created a breeding ground for criminal organizations.
The newest growth sectors for organized crime are identity theft and online extortion. These activities are troubling because they discourage consumers from using the Internet for e-commerce. E-commerce was supposed to level the playing ground between small and large businesses, but the growth of online organized crime is leading to the opposite effect; large businesses are able to afford more bandwidth to resist denial-of-service attacks and superior security.
Furthermore, organized crime using the Internet is much harder to trace down for the police even though they increasingly deploy cybercops since most police forces and law enforcement agencies operate within a local or national jurisdiction while the Internet makes it easier for criminal organizations to operate across such boundaries without detection. In the past criminal organizations have naturally limited themselves by their need to expand, putting them in competition with each other. This competition, often leading to violence, uses valuable resources such as manpower either killed or sent to prison , equipment and finances.
He used this position to eliminate competition and consolidate power within the city of Boston which led to the imprisonment of several senior organized crime figures including Gennaro Angiulo , underboss of the Patriarca crime family. Infighting sometimes occurs within an organization, such as the Castellamarese war of —31 and the Boston Irish Mob Wars of the s and s. Today criminal organizations are increasingly working together, realizing that it is better to work in cooperation rather than in competition with each other once again, consolidating power.
This has led to the rise of global criminal organizations such as Mara Salvatrucha , 18th Street gang , and Barrio Azteca. This rise in cooperation between criminal organizations has meant that law enforcement agencies are increasingly having to work together. This theory treats all individuals as rational operators, committing criminal acts after consideration of all associated risks detection and punishment compared with the rewards of crimes personal, financial etc.
The role of criminal organizations in lowering the perceptions of risk and increasing the likelihood of personal benefit is prioritized by this approach, with the organizations structure, purpose, and activity being indicative of the rational choices made by criminals and their organizers. This theory sees criminal behavior as reflective of an individual, internal calculation  by the criminal that the benefits associated with offending whether financial or otherwise outweigh the perceived risks. The benefits of participating in organized crime higher financial rewards, greater socioeconomic control and influence, protection of the family or significant others, perceived freedoms from 'oppressive' laws or norms contribute greatly to the psychology behind highly organized group offending.