These granite masses were once molten, with hot, liquid rock squeezing and melting its way upwards. Trapped in the crust, the magma cooled slowly, forming the crystalline granite.
This activity was associated with the Caledonian Orogeny, and there were many volcanoes as well, as for example at Glencoe. What we see in the Highlands now is the result of millions of years of erosion that has removed the top of a mountain range, exposing its roots. Visit: Lochaber Geopark. The rocks of the Scottish lowlands have a very different story from the mountains of the north. This is the site of the first attempt, starting nearly million years ago, to pull the newly formed continent apart. The result was a rift valley, covered with a rash of volcanoes and a hole filling with sediments being washed from the high ground to the north and south.
On the margins are older volcanoes forming hills such as the Pentlands and the Ochils. The different hill ranges are all linked by a common theme, being much more durable and resistant to erosion that the surrounding sedimentary rocks. Here we find the remains of the Iapetus Ocean floor, sedimentary rocks formed in deep sea that were later crumpled up and attached to the rest of Scotland during the Caledonian Orogeny. Here we find the remains of ancient sea creatures, the graptolites and trilobites that lived in the ocean over million years ago. The rounded character of the Southern Uplands is in sharp contrast to the more rugged Highlands, echoing their contrasting geology.
The underlying rocks give character to the landscape of Scotland, the grain of the land and to many aspects of our culture. And the rocks tell of an incredible history, of a piece of continent that has travelled the globe, been pummelled into mountains, rocked by volcanic eruptions and pulled apart along rifts. British Stratigraphy pp Cite as. The pile of sediments which had accumulated in the Lower Palaeozoic geosyncline was folded and uplifted to form a range of fold-mountains at the end of the Lower Palaeozoic era Fig.
As mentioned above, there were several periods of folding of the geosyncline during the course of the Lower Palaeozoic, some of them quite important, which gave rise to unconformities. Some of the unconformities affect only the shelf or marginal parts of the geosyncline, since small movements of folding or uplift tend to have little effect upon the deep subsiding basin, while disturbing the normal course of deposition among the shallow seas and thin sediments of the shelf. Unable to display preview.
Although it is a week course, the weekly time commitment is not large. I thoroughly enjoyed this course. I really enjoyed this course. I have taken other MOOCs and this was definitely up there in quality. I've read a lot of the reviews and I agree with almost all of them.
From a geological and geomorphological perspective the country has three main sub-divisions all of which were affected by Pleistocene glaciations. Free course Mountain building in Scotland. The final main ingredient in the mix were a series of large volcanos which were active in Scotland during the Tertiary period from 65mya to 2mya. By Vivien Cumming 26 November All rights reserved.
There are some areas that could be improved: Quizzes, pdfs of course notes, tech tips, background photo locations, etc. Pop quizzes were kind of weird. Asking me questions about what you're going to discuss, and then making me get the right answer before I can proceed? Kind of a strange teaching methodology. I am quite familiar with travel in the mountains and fairly on top of mountain ecology but I wasn't as…. I am quite familiar with travel in the mountains and fairly on top of mountain ecology but I wasn't as deeply familiar with the actual formation of mountains.
It was also interesting to think about mountains from the point of view of peoples and cultures that have lived most of their lives there. I have been in mountains mostly for recreation and pleasure, The Sublime, as was referred to in the course. And it was a kind of constant reminder that you always keep in the back of your mind when you're in mountains, that they have their own micro climates and weather systems and you need to be prepared to fend for yourself in all types of situations.
I would highly recommend this course to anyone who wants a good foundation in what it takes to make and be in mountains, not only for humans but all the other biota, too. Like many other reviewers, I'm definitely interested in a follow up course that goes into more depth on some of the topics just scanned.
Well done guys! This is by far the best free online course I have studied through MOOC, and I have done several in a range of different subjects. The subject of the course is of course fascinating, and essential learning in these times. The course relates mountains and their nature to the current issues surrounding the global ecosystem, climate change etc. But the main reason I rate the course so highly is that the production valu…. But the main reason I rate the course so highly is that the production values are by far the best I have seen for a course of this kind.
I don't know what budget they had but they certainly made the most of it. The course has some stunning visuals and includes a high standard of professional location shoots. It also gives interviews with a host of professional scientists and other experts in various fields around the world. By the time the course is done a relative beginner to the subject will not only know a lot more about mountains, but will really want to continue learning and above all, get out and enjoy them.
I loved this course. I enjoyed David and Zac's teaching styles as well as the graphics and video clips. The professionals interviewed were informative and well spoken. I chose not to race ahead with the course, but rather to savour each lesson. I shared what I learned with my dog-walking partner, who may now take the course herself. I appreciated learning about so many aspects of mountains from their geology to their glaciation and to the cultures of mountain people around the world.
I will use the information I learned in my work. I have a biology and geography degree from long ago as was delighted to be reminded of what I already knew and to learn information that is new from when I was in school.
The course was well put together. I may even take it again! I would certainly enjoy a second course on the same topic.
Well done and thank you. Oh yes, and I liked the tech tips too. This included physical geography, geology, biodiversity, ecology, climate change, indigenous and modern cultural impacts on mountain regions. For me it filled a gap and provided a complementary course to enhance reinforce knowledge gained from other courses in the fields of ecology, climate change, geology, physical geography and paleontology et al.
The course does not require extensive preknowledge and can be taken "for interest" as well as a supplement to more advanced studies. There is something for everyone here. Mountains is phenomenal. The professors and the material are both thoroughly engaging, and I looked forward to watching the lectures and working through the class material each week.
The class exposes you to a wide range of ideas and information, which really build one's knowledge and familiarity with historical, present, and future perceptions and issues related to mountains. The professors have done a tremendous job bringing in other diverse voices to complement their knowledge, and I appreciated that they included scientists, academics, First Nations people, and Parks Canada staff in the course.
The typed outlines each week are a great way to continue to review the class materials. Presentation clarity, spectacular imagery and topic flow are all extremely well done. This makes participation a real pleasure! Personally I feel this is a course anyone could find worth well with some interesting takeaways. The questionnaires were all appropriate but kudos for the pdf handouts.
This is rare that class notes are 'packaged', it does help the learning process, bravo! Perhaps one small suggestion is to cut into two, any videos that go over say, 12 minutes. It just seems daunting if one has to settle in for a 21 minute length presentation. But great work! I really enjoyed this MOOC. The scenery is fantastic and the presenters and guest presenters are great. If you enjoy mountains and want to learn a little more about them, I highly recommend this course. Each lecture has lecture notes a summary at the end.
I pre-read for each week and it made the videos more enjoyable and the quizzes much easier. I have learnt a lot from the course which I found very interesting. By taking a very broad approach to mountains a huge range of topics has been covered. It worked very well with having two presenters as well as a host of experts who provided additional real information. Generally the materials used for the course were well prepared and pertinent to the content. It is unashamedly Canada-centric but also brings in a lot of examples and scenarios from around the world.
The world map tool was particularly effective since it showed how shaky my world geography is. I live in Jasper National Park and figured this course would be a refresher for what I already know.